Friday, 8 October 2021

Essay on Environmental Pollution (ماحولیاتی آلودگی) in Urdu for all students | Matric, Inter and BSc Urdu Essays | SSWT

ماحولیاتی آلودگی پر مضمون  – 2000  سے زائد الفاظ

کرۂ ارض پر بے شمار قدرتی اور غیر قدرتی عوامل کی باہمی جنگ کے باعث ہمارا ماحول مسلسل تبدیلیوں سے گزر رہا ہے۔'منفی اثرات کے قدرتی عوامل کا حل تو خود قدرت کے پاس موجود ہے 'مگر وہ غیر قدرتی عوامل جو انسانی سرگرمیوں کی وجہ سے ظہور میں آتے ہیں ،ماحول کو ناقابل تلافی نقصان پہنچاتے ہیں۔ آج کی دنیا میں سائنس اور ٹیکنالوجی کی بدولت صنعتوں کا جال بچھ چکا ہے ،فاصلے سمٹ گئے ہیں ،سالوں اور مہینوں کے کام گھنٹوں اور منٹوں میں ہونے لگے ہیں ۔ مگر یہ تلخ حقیقت بھی اپنی جگہ ہے کہ جیسے جیسے انسان ترقی کی منازل طے  کرتا جا رہاہے ،فطرت تباہی کی طرف بڑھتی جا رہی ہے ۔ چنانچہ ہمارا فطرتی ماحول ایسی غیر فطرتی کثافتوں سے آلودہ ہو رہا ہے ، جن کےاثرات ناقابل تلافی ہیں ۔

وہ تمام طبعی،حیاتیاتی اور کیمیائی عناصر جو انسانی سرگرمیوں کی بدولت ماحول کا حصہ بن کر اسے آلودہ کرتے ہیں "آلودہ کنندہ" کہلاتے ہیں اور ان عناصر کی بدولت ہونے والی منفی ماحولیاتی تبدیلیوں کو "ماحولیاتی آلودگی " کہا جاتا ہے ۔ ذیل میں ماحولیاتی آلودگی کی مختلف قسموں اور ان سے بچاؤ کی تدابیر کا ذکر کیا جاتا ہے ۔


فضائی آلودگی:

ماحولیاتی آلودگی کی پہلی قسم فضائی آلودگی ہے ۔ کرۂ ارض کے گرد مختلف گیسوں کا ایک غلاف موجود ہے۔ نائٹروجن ،آکسیجن ،کاربن ڈائی آکسائیڈ اور دیگر گیسیں اس غلاف میں ایک خاص تناسب سے شامل ہیں۔ جدید صنعتی و سائنسی دور کی بدولت لاتعداد گاڑیوں کے انجنوں سے نکلنے والا دھواں اور کارخانوں کی چمنیوں سے نکلنے والا دھواں اور نقصان دہ گیسیں اور بخارات فضا میں شامل ہو جاتے ہیں۔ یہ زہریلی گیسیں انسانوں ہی کو نہیں ، نباتات تک کو متاثر کرتی ہیں۔

معدنی ایندھن یعنی پٹرول ، ڈیزل، موبل آئل ، مٹی کا تیل اور کوئلہ کا استعمال توانائی حاصل کرنے کے لیے سب سے زیادہ ہوتا ہے۔ ان کے جلنے سے کاربن اور نائٹروجن کے ساتھ گندھک (سلفر) کے آکسائیڈ خارج ہوتے ہیں اور دیگر کیامیائی مرکبات کے ساتھ مل کر ضرر رساں مرکبات میں تبدیل ہو جاتے ہیں۔موٹر گاڑیوں میں استعمال ہونے والے پٹرول میں سیسے کا ایک مرکب شامل کیا جاتا ہے۔ چنانچہ اس پٹرول کے جلنے سے سیسے اور کاربن کے ذرات سیاہ دھوئیں کی شکل میں خارج ہوتے ہیں۔ یہ دھواں فضا میں پھیل جاتا ہے اور مختلف بیماریوں کا موجب بنتا ہے ۔ گردوغبار بھی فضا کو آلودہ کرنے والا ایک اہم عنصر ہے ۔ کچے راستوں اور ٹوٹی پھوٹی سڑکوں پرگاڑیوں کی آمدورفت سے جو گرد اٹھتی ہے ، اس سے ساری فضا آلودہ ہو جاتی ہے اور اس کی وجہ سے نظامِ تنفس، آنکھوں اور جلد کی بیماریاں جنم لیتی ہیں ۔ معدنی ایندھن کے جلنے سے خارج ہونے والی گیسیں فضا میں موجود گرد کے ذرات اور دیگر کیمیائی و آبی بخارات کے ساتھ مل کر ایک زہریلی دُھندھ پیدا کر دیتے ہیں ، جو نہ صرف جاندار اشیاء اور نباتات کو نقصان پہنچاتی ہے ، بلکہ فضائی اور زمینی ٹریفک کے حادثات کا باعث بھی بنتی ہے ۔

معدنی ایندھن کے بے تحاشا استعمال سے فضا میں کاربن ڈائی آکسائیڈ کی مقدار قدرتی توازن سے بڑھ کر گیسی غلاف میں ایک موٹی تہہ کی صورت میں جمع ہو جاتی ہے ، جو سورج کی روشنی سے حاصل ہونے والی حرارت کو اس غلاف سے باہر نہیں نکلنے دیتی ۔ اسی اثر کے باعث کرۂ ارض کے اوسط درجہ ٔ حرارت میں اضافہ ہوا ہے اور یہ اضافہ تمام دنیا میں ماحولیاتی تبدیلیاں لانے کا باعث بن سکتا ہے ۔

فضائی آلودگی سے بچاؤ کا بہترین طریقہ یہی ہے کہ معدنی ایندھن کا متبادل تلاش کر کے فضائی آلودگی پیدا کرنے والے عناصر سے نجات حاصل کی جائے ۔ اس سلسلہ میں شمسی توانائی اور پانی اور ہوا کی توانائی سے کام لیا جا سکتا ہے ۔ صنعتی کارخانوں سے جو گیسیں خارج ہو کر فضائی آلودگی پیدا کرتی ہیں ، ان گیسوں کو معالجے کے ذریعے مضر اجزاء سے پاک کیا جائے اور تمام صنعتی اداروں کے لیے ایسا کرنا لازمی ہو ۔ موٹر گاڑیوں میں سیسے سے مبرّا پٹرول کے استعمال کو ترجیح دی جائے ، گاڑیوں کے انجنوں کی بر وقت سروس کرائی جائے اور دھواں دینے والی گاڑیوں پر پابندی لگا دی جائے ۔ جہاں کارخانوں کی تعداد زیادہ ہے ، وہاں کثرت سے درخت لگائے جائیں ، کیونکہ درخت فضا میں موجود کاربن ڈائی آکسائیڈ کو جذب کر کے آکسیجن خارج کرتے ہیں ۔ نیز کارخانے آبادی سے زیادہ فاصلہ پر لگائے جائیں اور فصلوں پر کیڑے مار دواؤں کے سپرے میں احتیاط سے کام لیا جائے ۔

آبی آلودگی :

پانی قدرت کا ایک ایسا عطیہ ہے ، کہ جس کے بغیر انسانی زندگی کی بقاء ناممکن ہے ۔ پانی چونکہ بہترین محلل ہے، اس لیے اکثرکثافتیں اس میں حل ہو کر پانی کو آلودہ کر دیتی ہیں ۔ جس سے آبی جانداروں کے علاوہ خشکی کے جانداروں، انسانوں اور نباتات پر بھی مضر اثر پڑتا ہے ۔ تمام صنعتوں میں پانی بڑی کثرت سے استعمال ہوتا ہے ۔ صنعتی استعمال کے بعد فالتو پانی حل پذیر اور کیمیائی مادوں کے ساتھ قریبی جوہڑوں ، ندی نالوں اور دریاؤں میں بہا دیا جاتا ہے ، جس سے زراعت اور معاشیات پر مضر اثر پڑتا ہے ۔ ندی نالوں اور دریاؤں میں مچھلیوں کی تعداد میں تیزی سے کمی واقع ہوتی ہے اور آلودہ پانی کو آبپاشی کے لیے استعمال کرنا بھی خطرے سے خالی نہیں ہوتا ، کیونکہ اس میں شامل مضر کیمیائی مرکبات پودوں کی جڑوں کے ذریعے پودوں میں داخل ہو جاتے ہیں ۔ ایسی فصلوں کا بطور خوراک استعمال کئی مہلک بیماریاں پیدا کر سکتا ہے ۔

شہری علاقوں کا تمام آلودہ اور گندہ پانی بھی بغیر صاف کیے کسی قریبی نالے یا دریا میں ڈال دیا جاتا ہے ۔ یہ آلودہ پانی جب زیریں علاقوں میں آبپاشی اور پینے کے لیے استعمال ہوتا ہے تو اس کی آلودگی انسانی صحت اور زراعت پر اثر انداز ہوتی ہے ۔ زیر زمین پانی بھی انہی کثافتوں کی بدولت آلودہ ہوتا ہے ۔ کیمیائی فاضل مائع مواد اور ساحلی علاقوں کی بدروؤں کا گندہ پانی بھی سمندر میں ڈال دیا جاتا ہے ۔ جس سے سمندر کا پانی بھی آلودہ ہو جاتا ہے ۔ سمندروں سے معدنی تیل کی نکاسی ، ترسیل اور آمدورفت کے دوران ٹینکروں سے رسنے والا تیل بھی سمندری آلودگی کا باعث بنتا ہے ۔ اس آلودگی سے ساحلی علاقے بھی متاثر ہوتے ہیں اور یہ سمندری جانوروں کے لیے بھی مہلک ثابت ہوتی ہے ۔

ملک میں پینے کے پانی کی قلت ہونے کی وجہ سے بیشتر دیہی علاقوں میں کنوؤں ، ندی نالوں ، نہروں اور دریاؤں کا پانی استعمال کیا جاتا ہے ، جو اکثر صورتوں میں آلودہ ہوتا ہے ۔ اس کے نتیجہ میں لوگ کئی مہلک اور وبائی امراض میں مبتلا ہو جاتے ہیں ۔ ایک انداز کے مطابق پاکستان میں چالیس فیصد اموات صرف آلودہ پانی کے استعمال کی وجہ سے ہوتی ہیں ۔

آبی آلودگی سے بچاؤ کے لیے سب سے پہلے یہ ضروری ہے کہ پانی کا استعمال کرنے والی صنعتیں آلودہ پانی کی صفائی کے انتظامات کریں اور انہیں قانونی طور  پر اس امر کا پابند کیا جائے کہ وہ آلودہ پانی کو صاف کیے بغیر ندی نالوں یا دریاؤں میں ٹھکانے نہ لگائیں ۔ اس کے ساتھ ہی چھوٹے بڑے شہروں میں گندے پانی کی نکاسی کے انتظام کو بہتر بنایا جائے اور اس پانی کو بھی آلودگی کم کیے بغیر ندی نالوں اور دریاؤں میں نہ پھینکا جائے ، تو اس سے آبی آلودگی میں خاصی کمی واقع ہو سکتی ہے ۔

زمینی آلودگی :

فضا اور پانی کوآلودہ کرنے والے عوامل زمینی آلودگی کا باعث بنتے ہیں ۔ صنعتوں کا ٹھوس یا نیم ٹھوس فاضل مواد اور رہائشی علاقوں کی کوڑا کرکٹ بھی زمینی آلودگی پیدا کرتے ہیں ۔ زراعت اور بار برداری کے لیے استعمال ہونے والے مویشیوں کا فضلہ اور دوسری گندگی بھی آلودگی پیدا کرنے کا ایک سبب ہے۔ ان عوامل میں سے بعض تو جلد ہی قدرتی عوامل کی بدولت تحلیل ہو جاتے یا ٹھکانے لگ جاتے ہیں ، مگر بعض قدرتی عوامل سے بھی ٹھکانے نہیں لگتے ، مثلاً پلاسٹک کی مصنوعات وغیرہ ، کہ ان کو ٹھکانے لگانے کا کوئی انتظام قدرتی عوامل میں شامل نہیں ہے ۔ بعض دفعہ کوڑے کرکٹ سے نجات حاصل کرنے کے لیے اس کے ڈھیروں کو جلا دیا جاتا ہے  ۔ اس طرح پیدا ہونے والا دھواں فضائی آلودگی کا باعث بنتا ہے ۔ موجودہ صنعتی دور میں ایسی اشیاء اور مصنوعات کا استعمال عام ہو گیا ہے ، جو ناقابلِ تحلیل مادوں پر مشتمل ہوتی ہیں اور ان کو ٹھکانے لگانا ایک گھمبیر مسئلہ بن گیا ہے ۔ بعض اوقات صنعتوں کے ٹھوس یا نیم ٹھوس فاضل مواد کو زمین میں دفن کر دیا جاتا ہے ، جس سے اس کے مضر اثرات زیر زمین پانی میں سرایت کر جاتے ہیں ۔

زمین کی آلودگی سے بچاؤ کے لیے لازم ہے کہ گھریلو کوڑے کرکٹ ، تجارتی علاقوں ، گلی کوچوں اور عوامی اداروں کے ٹھوس فاضل مواد کے نامیاتی مادوں کو علیحدہ جمع کر کے گیس پلانٹ کے ذریعے اس سے توانائی حاصل کی جائے ۔ نامیاتی مادوں کو مناسب اصلاح کے بعد بطور قدرتی کھاد بھی استعمال کیا جا سکتا ہے۔


جنگلات قدرت کا بیش بہا خزانہ بھی ہیں اور ماحول کو آلودگی سے صاف رکھنے کا قدرتی کرخانہ بھی ۔ جہاں جہاں درختوں کی بے دریغ کٹائی سے جنگلات کے رقبہ میں کمی آتی ہے ، وہاں زمین بُردگی کا شکار ہونے لگتی ہے ، جس سے قابلِ کاشت اراضی میں کمی آتی جاتی ہے اور آبی ذخائر بھی نہ صرف کم بلکہ آلودہ بھی ہو جاتے ہیں ۔ اس لیے ضروری ہے کہ جنگلاتی رقبہ کی مکمل کٹائی کو فوری طور پر بند کر کے پٹیوں کی شکل میں کٹائی کی جائے ۔ لکڑی کے متبادل ایندھن کے استعمال سے بھی جنگلاتی رقبہ میں کمی کو روکا جا سکتا ہے ۔ زرخیز یا نیم زرخیز زمین کو خالی چھوڑ دینے کی بجائے اس پر درخت لگائے جائیں اور آبادی میں اضافہ کے باعث زمین اور جنگلات کو بے تحاشا رہائشی آبادیوں میں تبدیل کرنے کی بجائے زرخیز زمین کو صرف زراعت کے لیے رہنے دیا جائے اور رہائشی علاقوں کے لیے بنجر یا ناقابلِ کاشت اراضی سے استفادہ کیا جائے ۔

شور کی آلودگی :

شور ناپسندیدہ، بلند اور بے ہنگم آوازوں کا نام ہے ۔ ریڈیو ، ٹیلی ویژن ، لاؤڈ سپیکر ، موٹر گاڑیاں ، صنعتی مشینیں وغیرہ بے حد شور پیدا کرتی ہیں ۔ یہ شور آس پاس کے افراد پر اثر انداز ہوتا ہے ۔ آواز کی شدت کی پیمائش کا بنیادی پیمانہ " ڈیسی بل " کہلاتا ہے اور انسانی کان 90 ڈیسی بل تک کی آواز بغیر تکلیف کے سن سکتا ہے ۔ جبکہ اس سے زائد شور انسانی صحت کے لیے ضرر رساں ہے ۔ اگر کوئی شخص مسلسل آٹھ گھنٹے 90 ڈیسی بل شور کی فضا میں رہے تو وہ بہرہ ہو سکتا ہے ۔ جبکہ 160 ڈیسی بل شور کی مقدار کا کوئی اچانک دھماکہ انسان کو مکمل طور پر بہرا بنا سکتا ہے ۔ بڑے شہروں کے مصروف چوکوں میں دن کے وقت شور کی سطح بہت زیادہ ہوتی ہے ، جبکہ ہوائی اڈوں اور بعض کارخانوں میں آواز کی بلندی 80 سے 120 ڈیسی بل تک ہوتی ہے ۔ شور نہ صرف پُرسکون ماحول میں خلل کا باعث بنتا ہے ، بلکہ انسانی نفسیات اور صحت پر بھی گہرے منفی اثرات مرتب کرتا ہے ۔ پرشور ماحول میں روزانہ مسلسل کئی گھنٹے گزارنے والے افراد مختلف اعصابی و قلبی امراض میں مبتلا ہونے کے علاوہ بہرے پن کا شکار بھی ہو سکتےہیں ۔

اگرچہ شور کی آلودگی کا مکمل انسداد نہیں کیا جا سکتا ، تاہم اس میں ممکنہ حد تک کمی ضرور کی جا سکتی ہے ، اور اس ضمن میں ناگزیر ہے خواہ مخواہ شور پیدا   کرنے کا موجب نہ بنا جائے ۔ تمام قسم کی گاڑیوں اور ان کے سائلنسروں کو درست حالت میں رکھا جائے اور زیادہ شور پیدا کرنے والے کرخانوں میں باقاعدہ شور جذب کرنے والے آلات نصب کیے جائیں ۔ عمارات کی تعمیر میں ایسا مواد استعمال کیا جائے جو گونج پیدا کرنے کی بجائے آواز کو جذب کر سکے ۔ ہوائی اڈوں ، ریل کی پٹڑیوں، سڑکوں اور کارخانوں کے اردگرد کثرت سے درخت لگائے جائیں ، کیونکہ درخت قدرتی طور پر شور کو جذب کرنے کی صلاحیت رکھتے ہیں ۔

ماحولیاتی آلودگی کے دیگر عوامل :

مندرجہ بالا عوامل کے علاوہ کئی اور عوامل بھی ماحولیاتی آلودگی کا باعث بنتے ہیں ، جن میں تابکاری مادے سرفہرست ہیں ۔ ایٹمی توانائی کا استعمال موجودہ دور میں تیزی سے بڑھ رہا ہے ۔ نیوکلیئر پلانٹ اور ایٹمی بجلی گھروں کے فضلات میں بیکار تابکار مادے شدید تابکاری شعاعیں خارج کرتے ہیں ۔ ان فضلات کو انتہائی محفوظ طریقے سے ٹھکانے نہ لگایا جائے تو یہ بہت خطرناک ثابت ہو سکتے ہیں ۔ ایٹمی دھماکوں یا تجربات سے بھی شعاعی آلودگی پھیلتی ہے ۔ ایکس ریز اور الٹرا ساؤنڈ وغیرہ کا زیادہ استعمال بھی جدید تحقیقات کے مطابق جسم میں کئی امراض پیدا کرتا ہے ۔

آبادی میں حد سے زیادہ اضافہ بھی ماحولیاتی آلودگی کا ایک سبب ہے ۔ آبادی میں بے تحاشا اضافہ کے باعث قدرتی وسائل پر بوجھ بڑھ رہا ہے اور خوراک کی قلت شدید ہو گئی ہے ۔ بے گھر اور بے روزگار افراد کی تعداد میں اضافہ ہو رہا ہے اور بڑھتی ہوئی کچی آبادیاں ماحولیاتی آلودگی کا بھیانک منظر پیش کرتی ہیں ۔ اسی لیے تمام اقسام کی آلودگی کا بنیادی سبب اضافۂ آبادی کو گردانتے ہوائے عالمی سطح پر آبادی کی شرح کو کم کرنے کی کوششیں کی جا رہی ہیں ۔

انسان کا ماحول اس کی فطرت کی عکاسی کرتا ہے ۔ صحت مند انسانوں ہی سے صحت مند معاشرہ جنم لیتا ہے اور صحت کی قیمت پر کوئی ترقی بھی صحیح معنوں میں ترقی نہیں کہلا سکتی ۔ چنانچہ ہمارا فرض ہے کہ ماحولیات کے بنیادی اصولوں کی پیروی کرتے ہوئے پانی ، توانائی اور باقی سب وسائل کو کفایت سے استعمال کریں ۔ بصورتِ دیگر ہماری آنے والی نسلوں کے لیے تباہ شدہ ماحولیاتی نظام ہی باقی بچے گا اور کچھ نہیں !

 

Essay on Environmental Pollution for all students | Matric, Inter and BSc English Essays | SSWT

Environmental pollution Essay - 1500+ words


Our environment is constantly changing due to the interplay of many natural and unnatural factors on the planet. Nature has the solution to the biological causes of adverse effects, but the artificial elements that emerge from human activities cause irreparable damage to the environment. Thanks to science and technology, a network of industries have been created in today's world, the distances have narrowed, and the work of years and months has begun to take hours and minutes. But there is also the bitter truth that as man progresses, nature is headed for destruction. As a result, our natural environment is becoming polluted with unnatural densities, the effects of which are irreparable.

All the physical, biological, and chemical elements that become part of the environment due to human activities and pollute it are called "pollutants". The negative environmental changes caused by these elements are called "environmental pollution". The different types of environmental pollution and their prevention measures are mentioned below.

Air pollution:


Air pollution is the first kind of environmental pollution. There is a cover of different gases around the earth. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases are included in this envelope in a particular proportion. Due to the modern industrial and scientific age, smoke from the engines of countless vehicles and smoke from the chimneys of factories and harmful gases and vapours are released into the atmosphere. These toxic gases affect not only humans but also plants.

Mineral fuels such as petrol, diesel, mobile oil, kerosene, and coal are commonly used energy sources. Their combustion releases sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen oxides and combines them with other compounds to form harmful compounds. For example, a mixture of lead is added to the gasoline used in motor vehicles. Thus, the burning of this gasoline releases leads and carbon particles in the form of black smoke. This smoke spreads in the air and causes various diseases. Dust is also an element of pollution. The dust created by the movement of vehicles on rough paths and broken roads pollutes the whole air and causes respiratory, eye, and skin diseases. The gases emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels combine with dust particles and other chemical and water vapours in the atmosphere to create a toxic haze, which harms living things and plants and air and road traffic. It also causes accidents.

Excessive use of fossil fuels causes the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to exceed the natural balance. It accumulates in a thick layer in the gas mantle, which does not allow the heat from sunlight to escape. This effect has led to an increase in the planet's average temperature, leading to climate change worldwide.

The best way to prevent air pollution is to find an alternative to fossil fuels and get rid of air pollutants. We can use solar, water and wind energy to get rid of air pollution. The gases emitted from industrial plants and create air pollution should be treated with hazardous substances, and all industrial establishments must do so. We should prioritize the use of lead-free petrol in motor vehicles, service car engines on time, and ban smoke emitting vehicles. Where there are many factories, trees should be planted frequently, as trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen. Also, we should set up factories at a distance from the population and spray pesticides on crops.

Water pollution:


Water is a gift of nature, without which the survival of human life is impossible. Since water is the best solvent, most of the solids dissolve in it and contaminate the water. In addition to aquatic life, it also has a detrimental effect on land animals, humans, and plants. Water is widely used in all industries. After industrial use, wastewater is discharged into nearby ponds, streams, and rivers with soluble and chemical substances, which has a detrimental effect on agriculture and the economy. The number of fish in streams and rivers decreases rapidly, and contaminated water for irrigation is not without danger. The harmful chemical compounds enter the plants through the roots of the plants. The use of such crops as food can cause many deadly diseases.




All polluted and dirty water from urban areas is dumped in a nearby drain or river without being treated. When this contaminated water is used for irrigation and drinking in the lower regions, it affects agriculture and human health. Groundwater is also polluted due to these densities. Chemical waste liquids and wastewater from coastal streams are also dumped into the sea. Which also degrades the seawater. Oil spills from tankers during the extraction, delivery, and transportation of mineral oil from the waters also cause marine pollution. Coastal areas are also affected by this pollution, and it is also deadly to aquatic animals.

Due to the shortage of drinking water in the country, water from wells, streams, canals, and streams is used in most rural areas, often polluted. As a result, people suffer from many deadly and epidemic diseases. According to one estimate, 40% of deaths in Pakistan are due to contaminated water alone.

To prevent water pollution, it is first of all necessary for the water-consuming industries to make arrangements for the treatment of polluted water and to legally oblige them to discharge the dirty water into streams or rivers without treating it. Don't settle. At the same time, we should improve the management of wastewater in small and large cities and not dump this water in streams and rivers without reducing pollution, significantly reducing water pollution.

Land pollution:


Air and water pollutants cause ground pollution. Industrial solid or semi-solid waste and residential waste also cause ground pollution. Cattle waste and other wastes used for agriculture and transportation are also a cause of pollution. Some of these factors are soon dissolved or disposed of by natural elements. Still, some are not disposed of by biological factors, such as plastic products, etc., that no disposal arrangements are included in the natural characteristics. Sometimes the piles are burned to get rid of the garbage. The smoke produced in this way causes air pollution. In the current industrial age, the use of items and products that contain insoluble substances has become common, and disposing of them has become a severe problem. Sometimes industrial solid or semi-solid waste is buried in the ground, causing its harmful effects to seep into groundwater.

To prevent land pollution, it is necessary to separate the organic matter from the solid waste of domestic garbage, commercial areas, streetcars, and public institutions and get energy from it through the gas plant. Organic matter can also be used as a natural fertilizer after proper correction.

Forests are also a treasure trove of nature and a natural tool for keeping the environment clean. Wherever deforestation reduces forest cover, the land becomes prone to deforestation, which reduces arable land and water resources, depleting and polluting. Therefore, it is necessary to stop the total deforestation immediately and cut it in strips. The use of alternative fuels for wood can also prevent deforestation. Instead of leaving fertile or semi-fertile land vacant, we should plant trees on it. Due to population growth, instead of converting land and forests into uninhabited residential areas, fertile land should be left for agriculture and residential areas. Use barren or uncultivated land.

Noise pollution:


Noise is the name given to unwanted, loud, and awkward sounds. Radios, televisions, loudspeakers, motor vehicles, industrial machines, etc., make a lot of noise. This noise affects the people around. The primary measure of sound intensity is called the decibel, and the human ear can hear sound up to 90 decibels without difficulty. Noise is more harmful to human health. If a person is exposed to 90 decibels of noise for eight consecutive hours, he may become deaf. An explosion of 160 decibels of noise can make a person completely deaf. Noise levels are very high during the day in busy squares of big cities, while in airports and some factories, the noise level is 80 to 120 decibels. Noise disturbs the calm environment and has a profound negative effect on the human psyche and health. People who spend many hours a day in a noisy environment can suffer from various neurological and cardiovascular diseases and deafness.

Although noise pollution cannot be completely controlled, we can minimize it as much as possible, and, inevitably, it will not cause any noise. We should keep all vehicles and silencers in good condition and install regular noise-absorbing devices in high noise factories. Build materials that absorb sound instead of resonating. Trees should be planted frequently around airports, railroads, roads, and factories, as trees can absorb noise naturally.

Other causes of environmental pollution:


In addition to the above factors, many other factors also cause environmental pollution, with radioactive substances at the forefront. The use of nuclear energy is overgrowing in the current era. Wasteful radioactive substances emit intense radioactive radiation into the waste of nuclear plants and nuclear power plants. These wastes can be hazardous if not disposed of in a very safe manner. Nuclear explosions or experiments also spread radiation pollution. According to modern research, excessive use of X-rays and ultrasound can also cause many diseases in the body.

Overpopulation is also a cause of environmental pollution. Due to the rapid increase in population, the burden on natural resources increases, and food shortages have become severe. In addition, the number of homeless and unemployed people is rising, and the growing slums present a grim picture of environmental pollution. That is why efforts are being made to reduce the global population rate, citing population growth as the leading cause of all forms of pollution.

Man's environment reflects his nature. Healthy human beings give birth to a healthy society, and no progress at the cost of health can genuinely be called progress. Therefore, we must use water, energy, and all other resources efficiently, following the basic principles of the environment. Otherwise, the destroyed ecosystem will be left for our future generations and nothing more!

Tuesday, 21 September 2021

How Entrepreneurs can make Money Online? Three Ways To Influence Online markets

The last two years have made people to remain inside to keep themselves safe from the spreading of disease. The business men or industries became afraid of losing their potential in their business. But this COVID-19 pandemic has also created many opportunities for entrepreneurs to embark their journey online. There are many ways to earn money online, but only a few of them are legitimate and successful. Now, people can earn money with just 2 things: First a good internet connection and second a computer. We will discuss top 3 legitimate ways to make money.


1. Create an Online business


There are many methods to start a full-scale online business. For example,
  • Selling customized products
  • Teach an online course
  • Start drop-shipping shop
  • Create a blog
Or

Make a digitally-enabled business by creating an interactive website and connecting it with potential customers such as: An online agency that makes websites and android applications.

Because of the epidemic, there are more opportunities today than ever before in the realm of online shopping. In the Harvard Business Review, 80 percent of U.S. consumers' shopping habits are shifting to benefit online businesses, while 43% those who were surveyed said that they shop on the internet more than they used to from brick-and-mortar shops. I've discovered that selling a product online doesn't just earn an income, but it also helps build your own brand and image.

To be successful in this field, entrepreneurs must pay attention on the most important matter. One of the simplest and fastest methods to accomplish this is to begin drop shipping. Because it requires only a minimal investment upfront and it doesn't require the purchase of inventory. The profits you earn will increase as time passes and, in turn, so will your savings. As time passes, this cash is able to be increased by investing.

2. Invest in Stock/Trade Markets


Online financial marketplaces offer an excellent way to make your money through intelligent investment strategies. It doesn't matter if it's cryptocurrency, blockchains, or stock trading cryptocurrency, a well-thought out investment strategy will produce positive outcomes. 
Before you make investments: 

  • You ought to keep in mind what's your tolerance to risk? 
  • What are the period You need to preserve the funding? 

This will let you decide which sort of funding is exceptional for you.

Multiformity is necessary. Investors often require a knowledgeable guide to help them make essential steps to make the best investment. To get this information, it is best to pick a mentor who has real prior experience of achieving the results of their investments and enhancing their wealth with similar strategies.

This is especially authentic in relation to disruptive technology which includes cryptocurrencies, as they are the places where markets and regulations can alternate rapidly. For instance just some months ago, it was reported that the U.S. Treasury Department proposed broad new regulations that would require cryptocurrency exchanges to disclose the identities of the people who are transferring digital currencies that can be converted into.

3. Invest In Property/Real Estate


Real estate is a profitable market for investors due to its massive expansion over the last few years. Based on a report by U.S. Census Bureau, the median sale price of residential properties reached $435,400 by April 2021.

Today, real estate agents can provide videos of their properties to prospective buyers. In fact, many clients appreciate this option as it allows the potential buyers to look at an investment home without having to go to the property. Virtual tours let investors maximize their time effectively since they can browse through several projects online from every geographical area. This is how certain entrepreneurs have been able to overcome the epidemic and increase their growth in the course of time.

If you are looking for a realtor to work with, it is important to inquire about which investment opportunities will yield the highest return. For instance, you can inquire if purchasing a home with the bed and breakfast it is going to bring in more money than buying a share of commercial property. Investing in real estate is one of the most effective methods to earn a profit for your money.

Conclusion


These are the best ways entrepreneurs can make money online by 2021. Entrepreneurs have endless opportunities willing to make the effort and seek out experts to guide them on the right path. Thus, Above are real and main opportunities to earn money online today in this economy. Of course, there are plenty of alternatives to earn money, however, successful entrepreneurs can concentrate and strive on the most lucrative opportunities in every scenario.

Monday, 12 July 2021

Ten Top WordPress Ecommerce Themes for 2021

As more individuals shift to web-based shopping, independent ventures and retailers have been forced to make their own online business.

Fortunately making an online business store is quick and simple with WordPress. With the Woo Commerce module and a WordPress theme, you can without much effort make a practical web-based business store.

In this article, we've assembled a list of web-based business WordPress themes to make your search simpler.

Following are some things to consider before selecting any WordPress theme:

Woo Commerce Compatibility

First check whether the theme is suitable with Woo Commerce. While most WordPress themes have all the necessary qualities, a web-based store theme allows you to make consistent home or item pages in a moment.

Website optimization (SEO)

Individuals will not rush to your site in case you're not seen well by Google. Luckily, numerous themes offer underlying Website SEO features, for example, fast load time, simple navigation, headings and subheadings, meta tags and descriptions. Remember the elements that influence the Web optimization of your site. Else, you'll experience difficulty drawing in more clients to your store.

Responsiveness

It is very essential for a website to be responsive. If it is responsive and mobile friendly the clients will have a smooth experience when looking through various gadgets like cell phones, tablets or computers.

Browsing performance

Consider the searching and purchasing conduct of your clients.

Select a theme that could show enormous item photographs or coordinate highlights like zoom for simple examination. Would you like to get more transformations? Pick a theme with an interruption free checkout choice and quick call-to-action buttons.

While selecting theme think about client side so that you can improve their online shopping experience.

Visual Graphics

Visual graphics make the look and feel of your website impressionable. Select a theme that is according to your brand. Some themes are decent, while others are modern. Some themes are especially made for restaurants, pharmacy, or craftsman.

Free WordPress themes for Ecommerce

Which theme to pick? Here's a rundown of our most loved online business topics for independent ventures, ornamental stores, online physical stores, and retailers. We bet you'll discover a topic that will meet for your organizations' requirements.

Independent ventures on a limited spending plan might need in the first place a free WordPress topic.

To assist you with beginning, we've incorporated the best free natural WordPress themes that are compatible with Woo Commerce.

1. Store Front by Woo Commerce 

We'll get going with the essential WordPress theme for Woo Commerce clients. Store Front is made and run by Woo Commerce designers. That implies it can incorporate with Woo Commerce extensions, show an online business centered landing page, and conform to major Woo Commerce updates.


 
Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • Woo Commerce Store Front can show item categories (like most recent, on-sale, best dealers and featured) on your landing page.
  • It's made for Woo Commerce, so it's consistently viable with important Woo Commerce updates.
  • It has responsive formats with a perfect plan and improved Website SEO execution.
  • Clients can get Store Front expansions to add surveys, super menus, evaluating tables, item sharing, parallax legend, and blog customizer to your store.
  • 25+ pre-assembled templates for a wide range of online business organizations.
2. Ashe 

Ashe depends on exceptionally visual components to propel guests to continue to peruse your site. Clients can modify the promotion boxes, standard advertisements, included slider, and header foundation. This makes it the ideal alternative for food, travel and design organizations that need to feature their contributions.



Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • It has a Star variant for $29 with lifetime subject updates, security refreshes, new highlights, and premium help.
  • It has an exquisite and completely responsive format with Woo Commerce shop (Store Front) support.
  • It uses the WordPress Live Subject Customizer to change tones, page designs, textual styles and foundations progressively.
  • It shows promotion boxes with eye-getting pictures with custom connections, and pennant advertisements at the header.
3. Envo Marketplace

Envo Marketplace is an easy WordPress Woo Commerce theme. With slight customization, clients can make web-based business stores reasonable for the style, tech, sports, décor, adornments or furniture industry.



Here are some of its significant highlights: 
  • It has a single tick demo import.
  • It has a super-quick 537ms load time to further develop Website design enhancement results.
  • It upholds famous page manufacturers like Elementor, KingComposer, Beaver Developer, and SiteOrigin.
  • It's viable with YITH Woo Commerce List of things to get and YITH Woo Commerce Analyze.
  • It's a website optimized and interpretation prepared theme with responsive plan.
4. Big Store 

Big Store is an online business site theme suggested for stores selling garments, hardware, devices, improving endowments and furniture. It has a simple to-utilize customization board that is completely receptive to an assortment of cell phones. On top of this, you can add numerous areas, just as header and footer design mixes.

 


Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • It flaunts a 1-minute arrangement.
  • It has a live customizer.
  • It has profound incorporation with Woo Commerce.
  • It has Web optimization well-disposed code and is interpretation prepared.
  • It has multisite support, which empowers you to utilize numerous WordPress subjects on a solitary site.
  • It has a business, premium rendition with admittance to lifetime refreshes, limitless space permit, lifetime balanced premium help, and premium starter demos.
  • It accompanies pre-made layouts for exercise center stores, food, shoe stores, online commercial centers, clinical shops, pastry kitchens, and that's just the beginning.
5. Astra 

Astra is a famous internet business theme for WordPress stores. Notwithstanding its 150+ starter formats, clients can exploit its intuitive developer and progressed styling alternatives to make their ideal web-based business webpage. To ensure unrivaled execution, it utilizes Vanilla JavaScript, under 50KB of assets, and quick stacking times from simply 0.5 seconds.


 
Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • It's viable with Gutenberg.
  • It has a natural intuitive Header and Footer developer.
  • It's anything but a website optimization agreeable theme that incorporates Schema.org code coordination.
  • It's business highlights incorporate all Astra Star highlights (like more customization abilities and better UX), balanced help, broad preparing, and limitless site utilization.
  • It offers the broadest library of pre-assembled sites, with over 150+ prepared to-import formats.
  • It has a visual subject customizer for changing design settings.
6. Neve 

Neve is a free WordPress theme that is quick and lightweight. You can make an expert looking site through its consistent combination with Gutenberg and mainstream page manufacturers (like Elementor, Brizy, Beaver Developer and Visual Writer). In addition to the fact that it is a completely responsive topic, but on the other hand it's AMP viable, so you will undoubtedly get on Google's acceptable side.


 
Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • It accompanies 80+ prepared to-import starter sites. New plans are added to the assortment consistently. With default WordPress information, Neve takes under 1 second to stack.
  • It's anything but a 100-speed grade rating on Google Page Speed Experiences. It permits you to redo the header and footer and control the site design alternatives
  • You can browse a few site format choices and tweak or overhaul the header and footer.
  • It renders sites as local AMP pages to fulfill web crawlers. Business WordPress Internet business themes Premium WordPress web-based business themes frequently have more customization choices to further develop client experience.
  • On top of this, you can further develop site security and reach out to respectable engineers for client care.

7. Jevelin 

Jevelin is a multi-reason subject most appropriate for wedding, photography, wellness, and online business-related organizations. You can upgrade your site with super menus, slideshow introductions, contact structures, and custom gadgets.



Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • It's evaluated at $59.
  • It has a single tick site establishment measure.
  • It has a completely responsive topic, with an inherent Woo Commerce module and internet business capacity.
  • Its business highlights incorporate lifetime updates and a half year of help from Shufflehound.
  • It's loaded with exceptional page formats and layouts, including more than ten portfolio alternatives.
  • It accompanies Slider Transformation worked in, so you can undoubtedly make slideshow introductions, video-based sliders, or portable well-disposed vivified text.
  • It offers 40+ altered short codes that are Website optimization agreeable and RTL enhanced.
8. Tonda

Tonda is a dazzling theme that can exhibit your items in a smart manner. This accompanies six home and nine inward pages that you can redo to make a vivid encounter for your clients. It best fits fired stores, online stores, excellence shops, and craftsman’s.


 
Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • It has a business form, estimated at $75.
  • Its business highlights incorporate future update and half year support for Select-Topics.
  • It's loaded with internet business capacities, for example, dropdown truck gadgets, fast view usefulness, a store finder, a spring up pamphlet, request following, and a client login gadget.
  • It's viable with Elementor, Slider Upheaval, Woo Commerce, Contact Structure 7, WPBakery Page Developer and WPML.org.
  • It has a numerous shop list format with channel usefulness for shop records. It incorporates video-foundation and parallax segments.
  • It likewise accompanies a gadget for Twitter channels, Instagram channels, social symbols, blog records, and a picture exhibition.
  • Its interpretation prepared, search engine oriented, and has WPML Module similarity.
9. Flatsome

Planned in view of astounding client experience, Flatsome is loaded with delightful formats and streamlined for speed. An enormous components library and simple to-utilize Live Page Manufacturer let you assemble any sort of internet business website. Furthermore, the Flatsome Studio incorporates a huge library of predefined formats or areas, pre-made components, and pre-made mockups that you can add to your store in a single tick.

 


Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • Its business variant is estimated at $59.
  • It offers admittance to Flatsome Studio, which has 300+ predefined formats and segments.
  • It incorporates limitless item page formats, an ongoing custom item page manufacturer, an inherent header developer and various item matrix styles.
  • It offers an item page manufacturer with an off-material or truck dropdown choice, an implicit list of things to get, inherent speedy view and index mode.
  • It loads pictures promptly with brilliant picture languid stacking and versatile picture abilities.
  • It permits you to make sliders with its implicit slider and pennant framework. It offers combination with MailChimp and Contact Structure 7.
  • It has full RTL support, a versatile streamlined plan and is search engine oriented.
  • It generally stays up with the latest with the most recent WordPress and Woo Commerce adaptation.
10. Savoy

Savoy has a cutting edge, moderate plan that can place your items in the best light. An inherent AJAX usefulness allows clients flawlessly to peruse whether they're utilizing work area or cell phones. Offering profound combination with Woo Commerce, Savoy is perhaps the best topic for those hoping to fabricate a devoted online business site.


 
Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • It's evaluated at $59.
  • It has simple establishment, with a single tick import.
  • It offers contact empowered displays and sliders.
  • It's anything but a completely AJAX Empowered Shop (no modules required).
  • It incorporates admittance to a committed help group and free updates. It has progressed header, footer, and blog choices.
  • It makes it simple to add internet business components, for example, item speedy view variable framework formats, various single item designs, a highlighted item video, expanded item depictions, and that's only the tip of the iceberg.
  • It has 40+ page manufacturer components, 900+ Google Web Textual styles, and Adobe Text styles joining. It's anything but a responsive, portable prepared format.
A Reward Topic Since you've read this far, you get a reward topic!

11. CiyaShop

CiyaShop is a multi-reason Woo Commerce WordPress topic that allows clients to make any sort of Online business site. For least customization, browse over 90+ complete online business webpage demos and 260+ prepared to utilize predefined areas. Because of its component rich capacities, clients can plan anything they need in a moment, regardless of whether they're assembling an online business store interestingly.


 
Here are some of its significant highlights:
  • Its business rendition is valued at $59.
  • It accompanies CiyaShop Studio, an assortment of predefined, prepared to-utilize formats, and a live customizer for building responsive pages.
  • Its business highlights incorporate lifetime updates and a half year of help from UX-topics.
  • It offers an item demand structure and item fast view highlights to keep clients locked in.
  • It incorporates a custom size guide so clients can pick the right size of the item they need to buy.
  • It offers a fast item channel, which allows clients to channel items by characteristic, classification, cost, and rating.
Conclusion:
A rundown of the best Online business WordPress themes for organizations.

Regardless of whether you have website composition experience, the pre-made formats, areas and components in these topics will allow you to make your ideal online business site.

The topics in our rundown are likewise viable with Woo Commerce so you can add online business abilities to your site in a moment. Ideally these subjects will allow you to construct the ideal online business site that is best for your business.

Tuesday, 2 February 2021

CS609-System Programming Quiz MCQs Lecture 23-45 Finalterm Objective Questions | SUPERSTARWEBTECH




CS609-System Programming Quiz MCQS #Objective #Questions #FinalTerm

1. The data structure that is maintained by the DOS in the boot block of each drive is known as:
  • FCB
  • DPB
  • BPB
  • RDB
2. In partition table, if LBA = 0 then it means
  • Logical drive
  • Extended partition
  • MBR
  • None
3. There is/are ___ DMA controller's masking register(s).
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
4. The ___ signals are used by various devices to request a DMA operation
  • ACK
  • Hold
  • DREQ
  • Dorder
5. The value ___ of partition table signature indicate that the code part contains valid executable code.
  • AA22
  • AA33
  • AA44
  • AA55
6. The last partition table within the chain contains ___ entry/entries about the logical drive
7. ___ is an absolute address relative to the start of physical drive
  • LBA
  • LSN
  • CHS
  • None
8. An extended partition can have one or more ___ partitions
9. Blocks can be termed as ___
10. A single DMA can transfer ___ bit operand to and from memory in one bus cycle
  • 4
  • 8
  • 12
  • 16
11. When we talk about FAT based file system, in user data area first cluster number is ___
  • 0
  • 1
  • 2
  • None
12. Cluster number can also be referred as block number
13. What will be the value of DL register when we are accessing C drive using undocumented service 21H/32H?
  • 0
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
14. When we mark a file as deleted by placing 0xE5 then the chain of clusters in FAT is also replaced by ___
  • E5
  • 1
  • 0
  • N
15. For supporting long file names. ___ fragments can be supported
  • 12
  • 20
  • 26
  • 32
16. Drive parameter block is derived from ___
  • FCB
  • FAT
  • BPB
  • CPB
17. ___ is the first logical sector of NTFS partition
18. In NFTS, Fat and root directory is replaced by:
  • FCB
  • MFT
  • Hidden blocks
  • Boot sector
19. File can be ___ views as collection of clusters or blocks
  • Physically
  • Logically
  • Both physically and logically
  • None
20. What will be the value of the word located at 1Fh in DPB when number of free clusters on drive is not known?
21. Each addressable unit has a unique combination of sec#, head#, track# as its ___ address.
22. BIOS services understand ___
  • LBA
  • LSN
  • Cluster #
  • None
23. The first cluster number of a file can be found in ___
  • BPB
  • DPB
  • FCB
  • None
24. The size of FSInfo block is:
25. In NTFS first ___ entries are reserved
  • 4
  • 6
  • 16
  • 32
26. In memory map of first 1MB of RAM, the first ___ is called conventional RAM
27. In memory map of first 1 MB of RAM, the higher ___ is called system memory
28. The ___ of boot block constitutes of BPB
29. Extended BIOS function make use of ___ address
  • LBA
  • CHS
  • LSN
  • None
30. LBA address can be used in place of CHS address
31. In FAT12, the maximum range of clusters is ___
32. NTFS volume can be accessed directly in DOS
33. Service 21H/52H service returns the address of DOS internal data structures in ES:BX ___ behind the address returned lies the far address of the first MCB in memory
34. 80386 can have ___ control registers
  • 2
  • 5
  • 3
  • 4
35. The partition table uses the extended ___ service
  • 13h
  • 14h
  • 15h
  • 16h
36. The entry point of execution in EXE File can be
  • Start of the first execution
  • Start of the last execution
  • Anywhere in the Program
  • Can be in the middle of the program
37. Using the ___ entry and the FAT contents we can access the contents of file
38. Control information in files is maintained using 
  • BPB
  • DPB
  • FCB
  • FPB
39. What will happen if NTFS volume is accessed in DOS?
40. LSN of FSInfo block is available at 
  • BPB
  • FAT
  • Root Directory
  • None
41. DOS device drivers do not understand the ___ data structures
  • FAT12
  • FAT16
  • FAT32
  • NTFS
42. A ___ is a collection of contiguous block
43. Practically ___ entries are there in FAT32
  • 2^26
  • 2^28
  • 2^30
  • 2^32
44. BPB stands for ___
45. Maximum possible entries in FAT12 are ___
  • 1024
  • 4096
  • 2048
  • 65536
46. Disadvantage of FAT32 is ___
  • Large disk size can be managed in FAT32
  • Cluster size is reduced
  • Internal fragmentation is reduced
  • Very large table
47. Jump code part contains ___ bytes in boot block
  • 3
  • 5
  • 8
  • 11
48. Operating system name contains ___ bytes in boot block
  • 3
  • 5
  • 8
  • 11
49. File can be ___ views as organization of data
50. ___ is used to read a block against its LSN
51. To access the block within cluster using BIOS services the cluster number should be converted into ___
  • CHS
  • LBA
  • LSN
  • None
52. The directory structure of DOS is like ___
  • Array
  • Tree
  • Linked list 
  • None
53. When LSN is equal to zero (0) it means ___
54. In FAT32, lower ___ bits are used 
  • 26
  • 28
  • 30
  • 32
55. ___ is relative address with respect to the start of Logical Drive
  • LBA
  • LSN
  • CHS
  • None
56. The practical limit of blocks per cluster is ___
57. In DOS we have limit of ___
58. Highest capacity physical capacity of the disk according to the IDE interface is ___
59. In Protected Mode, the segment registers are used as ___
60. To access drive parameter block we use undocumented service ___
61. Boot block consists of ___ bytes
  • 64
  • 128
  • 256
  • 512
62. The DMA requests to acquire buses through the ___ signal
63. In FAT12, to calculate the address or offset from index, we need to multiply it with ___
  • 1/2
  • 3/2
  • 5/7
  • 7/2
64. ___ registers can be used to show that the channel is single transfer, block transfer or demand transfer mode
65. Cluster size is reduced in ___
66. In FAT32 ___ root directory entries are there
67. If a file is having more than one cluster then it will be managed by ___
68. Internal fragmentation is reduced in ___
69. To store a cluster in FAT32 ___ is/are needed
70. If a file size is 12K and the size of the cluster is 4K then ___ clusters are used for files.
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
71. We can access the contents of File by using the root directory entry and ___
72. FAT based file system can store file name in ___ form
73. We can access blocks for FAT using ___
  • BPB
  • DPB
  • FCB
  • Both BPB and DPB
74. If we know the cluster number, we can access the blocks within the cluster using BIOS services directly
75. ___ is an internal data structure of DOS and resides in main memory
  • BPB
  • DPB
  • CPB
  • None